Today is one of at least two thirds of humanity living on earth exposed to hunger, can not be adequately fed. But it is, unfortunately, still at least one-third of food produced again for the nutritional needs of the human being to supply the needs of humanity today is deteriorating and decaying. Today all the food produced for human nutritional needs if it is to supply the needs of humanity was intact and decay, perhaps mankind could also be exposed to hunger, and fed adequately.
COOLING WHY IS REQUIRED?
Fresh fruits and vegetables, animal products and aquatic products, such as perishable agricultural products from the beginning of production until consumption of the gerekir.soğut The importance of maintaining the cold environments, we can evaluate the main cooling methods and the cold storage.
The main reason for the failure to meet the nutrient requirements at any time and amount are as follows:
- The limited possibilities of cold
- Knowledge of the techniques of Storage
- Various shortcomings in cold storage
- Perishable goods consumption in prior losses
- Differences in the amount of production between regions
- Sent to areas not produced the products can not be
Of these, the consumers and producers faced with cooling as the name suggests, this loss can be reduced. Protection of the quality and characteristics of the product by applying various methods of preservation, in every season of the year, consumer price fluctuations affected by the manufacturers of the products in addition to providing high-quality foodstuffs can be avoided by falling minimize income. In addition, increasing the ability to provide products to foreign markets is ensured.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COLD STORAGE
Fresh fruit and vegetables to be established for storing the optimum storage conditions to ensure that the projected establishment of cold storage is required. The most important factor in maintaining the climate.
When frozen when fresh vegetables are brought to the cell membrane to normal characteristics of the natural environment that crack is lost.
Therefore, fresh fruit and vegetables should be maintained on the freezing point. This temperature by 1 ° C to 15 ° C between quality product and varies depending on the storage period.
The structure of the fruit and vegetables are more than 80% water. Products in environments where humidity is maintained to be a loss of water should be above this level.
What should be the will STORAGE PRODUCTS FEATURE?
1 PLANT PRODUCTS
One of the most preserved apple fruit in cold storage revenues. In fact, the general principles of the cold storage plant products are similar. These are:
Harvest time: it must be harvested before reaching maturity Although eating ripe product to be stored.
Harvest Method: During harvest two points should be noted:
- The collection without damaging the product
- The fact that economic Harvest
Packaging: Paper should be put at the bottom of the box sides and tops should be paperless. Thereby allowing air circulation in the body during storage.
2. ANIMAL PRODUCTS AND SEAFOOD
In general, it should be maintained from production to consumption of these products in cold environments.
Meat: Healthy animals have the disease and the causative agent of deterioration after cutting Although no germs are spread very quickly.
At 0 ° C to -1.7 ° C and the discoloration of fresh meat are maintained in cold conditions, including relative humidity of 90-95%.
Dairy products: Cheese 5 ° C and 0 ° C during 5-6 months are kept filled state. Butter 4 s at 10 ° C (filled before despatch housing) is maintained during 5-6 months.
Eggs: containing 2,5 to 2 ° C and 80-95% relative humidity is maintained at ambient.
Aquaculture: usually 90 to 95% of relative -5 ° C temperature is maintained for 20 days with a humidity of 5. Aquaculture should be cooled immediately after hunting.
For this purpose, pieces of ice water over the product with a mixture of salts formed from closure methods are used.
Cold Storage METHOD WHAT?
These methods can be divided into four.
- Cold storage: is a form of cooling is applied above the freezing point of the product.
- Deep freeze: longer by maintaining a healthy housing environment is a form of creation.
- Freeze drying: The products are then frozen before they are taken to a room that was evacuated. This room is a method of drying the product, in whole or relative amounts of said device upon receipt of water vapor absorbed moisture from the environment or product.
- Pre-cooling: the temperature before the consignment is to reduce long-term storage of products in a short time.
Cooling agents (refrigerants)
Forming a low temperature of the refrigerant in the cold storage material is called. The high evaporation temperature of the coolant when compressed in this article compressor pressure and temperature increases, the condenser called the external environment is taken in temperatures positioned in the heat exchanger and evaporator name is expanded by decreasing the pressure in the positioned unit in the storage area. The expanded refrigerant constitutes the blowing fan to cool the heat medium with the aid of suction.
COLD STORAGE PROJECT
Capacity: Applied cold storage projects, raw materials supply, economic power, technical feasibility and market size to the needs and processes, considering the most appropriate way to be prepared in the relevant capacity.
Technique: The project coolants; and the structure of the compressor, condenser, product will be stored according to the storage conditions and the plant capacity and location conditions should be selected appropriately.
RELATED PROPERTIES property
It can be operated efficiently and to maintain the cold storage business in accordance with the stored goods must first be aware of the following:
- From the production and consumption areas where the business is established,
- The existence of infrastructure facilities,
- Tank and surface geological condition of the building where the establishment of,
- The location of buildings,
- Construction equipment,
- The size of the cold store.
Regarding the company's internal structure;
- Residential status of the cold room with cooling equipment section,
- The width of the corridor, product, transport and draining suitability,
- Single or multi-layer consisting of storage,
- Transport equipment utilized in the product and the presence of equipment,
- The number of machines and other equipment cooling capacity and competence,
- Characteristic of the cooling system.